Matrix Decomposition (or factorization) is pretty important in many research areas, especially in data analysis, such as using SVD or EVD in PCA. Actually there are more than 10 kinds of matrix decomposition methods. In general, researchers divide these methods into 4 types, diagonal factorization (like SVD), triangularization factorization (like LU), triangle-diagonal decomposition (like schur decomposition) and tri-diagonal decomposition. Here the triangularization factorization is just discussed first.
1 Cholesky factorization